Modern technology gives us many things.

How could Russia’s war against Ukraine be exacerbated by the lack of chips

Neon, a colorless and odorless gas, isn’t usually as exciting as it sounds, but this undemanding molecule plays a key role in making the technology we use every day. For years, this neon has also mostly come from Ukraine, where only two companies clean enough to produce devices for much of the world, usually without difficulty. At least that was the case until Russia attacked.

Due to the devastating reality of the war, the Ukrainian neon industry stopped production. One of Ukraine’s two primary neon companies, Ingas, is headquartered in Mariupol, which has been repeatedly bombed by Russian forces and is currently under siege. Another company, Cryoin, is headquartered in Odessa, where citizens are currently preparing for an attack. And with the appalling situation and the growing number of civilian casualties, the safety of the people working in these companies is a priority, not a potential impact on technology manufacturers.

However, wavy effects will occur. Semiconductor manufacturers rely on neon to control the specialized lasers they use to make computer chips. It is unclear at this time whether they have enough time to find and develop new sources of this gas before they run out of reserve supplies: chip companies and industry analysts say it has neon in reserve for one to six months. If this runs out, these companies will not be able to make semiconductors. This means that the global shortage of chips – which is expected to end sometime next year – could last even longer, leading to higher prices, delivery delays and a lack of critical technology.

“Whether it’s electronics, cars, computers, phones, new planes, everything you can imagine has a semiconductor chip,” explains Unni Pillai, a professor of nanoengineering at the SUNY Polytechnic Institute. “In the long run, if it doesn’t work out, you may not be able to buy these products on the market anymore.”

This looming shortage is a serious reminder that technological production is widespread around the world and in different companies, some of which are combined in a single country. Hardware companies like Apple, Samsung and Intel tend to like this approach because they buy components from specialized third-party manufacturers, allowing them to reduce labor costs and assemble devices with a high level of efficiency. However, the current war in Ukraine makes it clear that this system is also uncertain and that an obstacle to the production of even the most basic components or components can jeopardize global access to all types of technology. Neon is just the last example, but it probably won’t be the last.

The fragile neon supply chain, explained

The fragile neon supply chain, explained

Chip manufacturers generally do not produce their own neon. Nevertheless, they need gas to operate the high-precision lasers they use to convert silicon – the main component in chips – into the tiny circuits that make computers work. These lasers play a major role in a step called lithography, which occurs after long silicon cylinders, sometimes called ingots, are cut into thin sheets of silicon called slices and often resemble CD-ROMs. To see also : Renesas stops semiconductor plants in Japan after an earthquake. Manufacturers use these lasers to etch tiny, sensitive patterns onto glass, beginning the process of transforming a silicon sheet into a chip sheet. Because these chips are so small and complex, manufacturers need to control the exact wavelength of light emitted by their lasers. That’s what neon is for.

“Neon is what we call buffer gas. You need something that is somehow inert to play a role in this process of creating the current wavelength of light in a laser, ”Pillai told Recode. “This exposure actually creates these electronic circuits.”

Neon itself is not that easy to get. The gas is usually captured directly from the air, so manufacturing plants use specialized air separation technology to distill neon into a liquid form, allowing it to separate from other molecules such as nitrogen and oxygen. Because neon is only a fraction of the percentage of air, a lot of air is needed to produce the amount of neon needed by the semiconductor industry. This means that the best place to get neon is usually in a facility that already uses the same technology for other reasons. These are usually steel mills, often those in the former Soviet Union.

This basic process involves neon in its raw form, but chip companies typically need a more refined version of the gas. These two Ukrainian companies, Ingas and Cryoin, perform there. In total, Ukraine produced about half of the 667 million liters of semiconductor neon used last year, reports Techcet, a consulting company for the supply of semiconductor circuits. Cryoin primarily makes neon for the chip industry, and Ingas also makes other types of neon, including those used in neon signs that you can see on store windows.

Even before Russia invaded, there was evidence that Ukraine’s neon supply was vulnerable. When Russia annexed the Crimean peninsula in 2014, the price of neon rose by about 600 percent, and companies began to wonder if Ukraine could reliably produce neon in the long run. Signs of trouble also emerged in the months and weeks before the Russian attack. Since December 2021, neon prices have risen in China, which is also home to many neon manufacturers. The White House felt in early February that Russia would soon attack, ordering chipmakers to start looking for neon sources outside the country. About two weeks later, ASML, one of the major suppliers of lasers in the chip industry, also began looking for new places to buy neon.

In response, chip companies made stocks of neon. Currently, the Semiconductor Industry Association, the main trade organization representing the U.S. chip industry, said the war will not be “an immediate threat of supply disruptions.” It is also possible that these companies may turn to measures they took after the Crimean crisis, such as recycling the neon they have and adapting their lasers to make their neon last longer. The problem, however, is that all of these are only short-term solutions, and it is not clear how long the war will last. At some point, the neon could run out.

The chip industry reshuffles

The chip industry reshuffles

Ukraine’s longstanding influence on the neon industry reflects decades of globalization, free trade policies, and even the birth of the modern shipping container, which has allowed companies to move devices at relatively low cost from factory to factory as they assemble. With this system, countries around the world have been able to develop their own niches in the wider supply chain, just as Ukraine has done in the semiconductor industry. On the same subject : What is a Compound Semiconductor. But this system is extremely risky, especially in times of crisis. It can leave workers in dangerous situations and people without access to critical technology.

In the last two years, the global shortage of semiconductors has shown this time and time again. Covid-19 outbreaks in chipmaking plants continue to slow device production. So there is a shortage of electricity in China, fire in Japan and extreme weather in Texas. Now carmakers are selling cars without parts, and alarm companies are trying to replace outdated home medical devices and security systems – all because there are still not enough chips. In this sense, the war in Ukraine is just another example of how a lack of often unnoticed components or ingredients can overwhelm and throw the entire technology industry off course.

“These basic materials – parts of the supply chain – are at so many levels in most supply chains that people don’t think about it,” Willy Shih, a professor of business administration at Harvard, told Recode. “It’s a feature of the complex web we’ve been weaving for the last few decades.”

Countries are competing to move away from this approach to semiconductor manufacturing. Japan, China, South Korea, and the European Union have begun or plan to invest billions of dollars in developing their own chipmaking facilities. The U.S. is currently weighing a plan to spend more than $ 52 billion to boost the U.S. chip industry, which is set to accelerate domestic technology production and make U.S. technology much less dependent on other countries. The lack of neon, however, also highlighted the fact that the chip industry is highly dependent on a wide range of components. If the lack of these components can prolong the cramp in the chip supply, they will certainly hold back the upcoming renaissance of chips.

“The change that is happening right now – moving from a more global economy to a more local economy – this [war] is actually pushing it in that direction,” explained Lita Shon-Roy, Techcet’s president and CEO. “Each region will have to set up things that will allow them to be more self-sufficient in terms of materials.”

In the case of neon, this is already happening. In 2016, Ukraine produced about 70 percent of the neon used in the world’s semiconductors, Techcet reports. But after the crisis in Crimea, new sources of neon began to emerge. Some U.S. steelmakers have redesigned the air separation technology they already had so they could capture neon, and one U.S. industrial gas company, Linde, spent $ 250 million to build a neon plant in Texas. Manufacturers in other countries, including China and South Korea, are also making their own neon supplies. In response, Ukraine’s neon market share declined.

The solution to the neon shortage, however, will not be the end of the problems of the chip industry. Even if new sources of neon arrive, the war could still result in a shortage of other critical supplies used for chips. Russia creates much of America’s supply of palladium, a metal used in semiconductors and catalysts. It also provides a lot of the world’s nickel, a critical material for making batteries for electric vehicles, and C4F6, another gas used in making chips. At the same time, Mikhail Fedorov, Ukraine’s Minister of Digital Transformation, is urging some chip companies, including Qualcomm, to withdraw completely from Russia.

“When things like this happen in Ukraine, it reveals all these connections,” said Shih, a Harvard professor. “A lot of people are surprised.”

In the future, countries want to be less surprised, so they are spending a lot of money on developing a more self-sufficient – and more expensive – approach. For now, however, the global technology supply chain remains a house of cards. This means that the production of chips used to make everything from defibrillators to virtual reality headphones still depends on whether the world is generally in a good place where there are no wars or pandemics. Unfortunately, this is not the world we live in.

What is neon for chips?

What is neon for chips?

Neon is used as part of the lithographic phase of chip production, a step that involves the use of lasers to draw features on silicone wafers. According to analyst Bernstein Stacy Rasgon, chipmakers account for 75% of global neon demand, with the rest going to industrial lasers and Lasik eye surgery.

How is neon used in the semiconductor industry? Semiconductor manufacturers rely on neon to control the specialized lasers they use to make computer chips.

Does russia produce neon?

Ukrainian neon is a by-product of Russian steel production. The gas, which is also used in laser eye surgery, is also produced in China, but Chinese prices are rising steadily.

How is neon used in chip production?

Neon is a gas that is crucial for making chips. It is used in the lithography step, which includes lasers that cut silicon to develop semiconductors.

What is the formula for neon?

What is the formula for neon?

Neon is a chemical element with the chemical symbol No and atomic number 10. It is a noble gas that is colorless, odorless, inert and monoatomic.

What is the chemical name of neon? neon (Ne), a chemical element, an inert gas of group 18 (noble gases) of the Periodic Table used in electrical signs and fluorescent lamps. Colorless, odorless, tasteless, and lighter than air, neon gas occurs in small amounts in the Earth’s atmosphere and is trapped in the rocks of the Earth’s crust.

Which equation is correct for neon gas?

The molar mass of neon is 20.180 g / mol. The equation for the ideal gas law is PV = nRT, where P is the pressure, V is the volume, n is the number of moles, R is the gas constant, and T is the temperature in Kelvins.

What is the chemical compound of neon?

No stable chemical neon compounds were observed. The molecules of an element are made up of individual atoms. Natural neon is a mixture of three stable isotopes: neon-20 (90.92 percent); neon-21 (0.26 percent); and neon-22 (8.82 percent). Neon was the first element to be shown to consist of more than one stable isotope.

How is neon gas produced?

Production. Neon is produced from air in cryogenic air separation devices. The mixture of the gas phase, mainly nitrogen, neon and helium, is taken from the main condenser at the top of the high-pressure separation column and fed to the bottom of the side column for neon rectification.

What is a chemical property of neon gas?

It is a colorless inert gas with no taste or odor. It turns reddish-orange in the vacuum tube. It is chemically inactive. It has the lowest fluid range of any element.

What is the chemical reaction of neon?

Neon does not react with any other substance. The biggest use of neon is in making ubiquitous “neon signs” for advertising. In a vacuum drain tube, neon glows reddish orange. Only the red signs actually contain pure neon.

What is the chemical formulas for neon?

neon (Ne), a chemical element, an inert gas of group 18 (noble gases) of the Periodic Table used in electrical signs and fluorescent lamps.

Does neon undergo chemical reaction?

Helium and neon are considered inert gases. Thus, there is no room to receive electrons. So they do not participate in chemical reactions.

How is neon formed?

In the Earth’s atmosphere, neon makes up only about 0.0018 percent, Chemicool reports. Neon is formed in high-mass stars when the internal pressure of the star is high enough to fuse carbon atoms into neon atoms, according to the Berkeley Lab.

What is the symbol for neon?

The neon symbol is No, atomic number 10, located in the 2nd period of the noble gas group. It has no atomic mass of 20.1797, 10 electrons and protons, 10.1797 neutrons, the electron configuration is [He] 2S22p6. Neon, No, discovered in 1898 by Sir William Ramsay, is a colorless noble gas.

What is the origin of neon symbol?

Date of discovery1898
DiscoveredSir William Ramsay and Morris Travers
Source of the nameThe name comes from the Greek “neos”, which means new.
Allotropes

What is the symbol for neon 21?

(~ 21 ~ No) Neon | No – PubChem.

What is the symbol for neon 20?

Neon isotope with a mass of 20 No – PubChem.

What countries produce neon?

About 70% of the world’s neon supply is produced in Ukraine. Ukrainian neon originates from Russia, where it is released as a by-product during steel production. From 2020, Iceblick, with plants in Odessa and Moscow, supplies 65 percent of global neon production and 15 percent of krypton and xenon.

Which country produces the most neon gas? In addition, more than half of the world’s neon oil production is concentrated in Russia and Ukraine. Western Europe is one of the major producers of neon gas and is expected to remain stable over the forecast period.

How is neon used in chip production?

Neon is a gas that is crucial for making chips. It is used in the lithography step, which includes lasers that cut silicon to develop semiconductors.

How do we get neon?

Neon can be obtained from air by fractional distillation. The first step in fractional distillation of air is to replace the container with air into a liquid. Then allow the liquid air to heat up. As the air heats up, each element in the air changes from a liquid back to a gas at a different temperature.

What country produces neon?

Ukraine produces about 25% of the world’s neon, a by-product of steel production, Bernstein Research reports. Large semiconductor manufacturers, such as Intel or TSMC, typically store gas for two to three months, and neon can move down the supply chain for up to three months.

Where can neon be found?

It is found in very small traces both in the Earth’s atmosphere and in the Earth’s crust. It can be commercially produced from liquid air by a process called fractional distillation. Neon is a much more common element in the stars and is the fifth most abundant element in the universe.

How much does neon cost?

atomic number:10
atomic symbol:No
Atomic weight:20,179 th most common
Electronic configuration:[On] 2s22p6
Total isotopes19

How is neon produced?

Neon signs are made of glass tubes bent into letters or shapes and filled with inert gas. When an electric current hits the electrodes in a tube, electrons flow through the gas, causing its atoms to glow. The type of gas in the tubes determines the color of the light.

Where can neon be found?

It is found in very small traces both in the Earth’s atmosphere and in the Earth’s crust. It can be commercially produced from liquid air by a process called fractional distillation. Neon is a much more common element in the stars and is the fifth most abundant element in the universe.

How do we get neon?

Neon can be obtained from air by fractional distillation. The first step in fractional distillation of air is to replace the container with air into a liquid. Then allow the liquid air to heat up. As the air heats up, each element in the air changes from a liquid back to a gas at a different temperature.

Where is neon most commonly found?

Extremely small amounts can sometimes be found in the Earth’s atmosphere and earth’s crust. It is usually made by scientists and researchers. Neon is mostly found in stars and is the fifth most common element in the universe.

Where can neon be found in daily life?

Neon is used in vacuum tubes, high voltage indicators, lightning arresters, waveguide tubes, television tubes and helium-neon lasers. Liquefied neon is commercially used as a cryogenic refrigerant in applications that do not require a lower temperature range, which can be achieved by more extreme liquid helium cooling.

Where do you find neon?

Neon is a very rare element on Earth. It is found in very small traces both in the Earth’s atmosphere and in the Earth’s crust. It can be commercially produced from liquid air by a process called fractional distillation.

How do we get neon? Neon can be obtained from air by fractional distillation. The first step in fractional distillation of air is to replace the container with air into a liquid. Then allow the liquid air to heat up. As the air heats up, each element in the air changes from a liquid back to a gas at a different temperature.

Is neon hard to find?

Although relatively rare on our planet, neon is the fifth most abundant element in the universe. If we could collect all the neon from rooms in a typical new home in the United States, we would get 10 gallons (2 gallons) of neon gas. Neon is formed in stars with a mass of eight or more Earth suns.

Is neon gas rare?

Although neon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe, only 0.0018% of the Earth’s atmosphere is neon. Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules made up of a single neon atom. Neon is a rare gas found in the Earth’s atmosphere at 1 in 65,000.

Where is neon most commonly found?

Extremely small amounts can sometimes be found in the Earth’s atmosphere and earth’s crust. It is usually made by scientists and researchers. Neon is mostly found in stars and is the fifth most common element in the universe.

Why is neon so rare on Earth?

The only source of neon is extraction from liquefied air. Neon is also found in diamonds and some volcanic openings. Because neon is rare in the air, it is an expensive gas to produce, about 55 times more expensive than liquid helium.

Where is neon found in the world?

Neon is the fifth most abundant element in the universe. However, it is present in the Earth’s atmosphere in a concentration of only 18 parts per million. It is obtained by fractional distillation of liquid air.

Can neon be found on Earth?

Although neon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe, only 0.0018% of the Earth’s atmosphere is neon. Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules made up of a single neon atom. Neon is a rare gas found in the Earth’s atmosphere at 1 in 65,000.

Where in the world is neon typically found?

It is found in very small traces both in the Earth’s atmosphere and in the Earth’s crust. It can be commercially produced from liquid air by a process called fractional distillation. Neon is a much more common element in the stars and is the fifth most abundant element in the universe.

Where is neon gas produced?

In the Earth’s atmosphere, neon makes up only about 0.0018 percent, Chemicool reports. Neon is formed in high-mass stars when the internal pressure of the star is high enough to fuse carbon atoms into neon atoms, according to the Berkeley Lab.

How is neon gas produced?

Production. Neon is produced from air in cryogenic air separation devices. The mixture of the gas phase, mainly nitrogen, neon and helium, is taken from the main condenser at the top of the high-pressure separation column and fed to the bottom of the side column for neon rectification.

What is the main source of neon?

Its only commercial source is an atmosphere of 18 parts per million volume. Because its boiling point is −246 ° C (ˆ’411 ° F), neon, along with helium and hydrogen, remains in a small proportion of the air that resists liquefaction when cooled to −195.8 ° C (âˆ). ‘320.4 ° F, boiling point of liquid nitrogen).

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