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Extrinsic Semiconductors

In this comprehensive article, readers will learn about extrinsic semiconductors – a crucial component in modern electronics. The article delves into the definition and types of extrinsic semiconductors, the doping process, and associated energy bands. The carrier transport processes, mechanisms, and electronic properties of these semiconductors are explored in-depth. Finally, the article highlights the wide range of applications for extrinsic semiconductors, including diodes, transistors, integrated circuits, photodetectors, optoelectronic devices, and power electronic devices.

Definition and Types of Extrinsic Semiconductors

Extrinsic semiconductors are artificially prepared materials that exhibit semiconductor properties by the deliberate introduction of impurities or dopants into an intrinsic semiconductor. These impurities increase the number of free charge carriers (electrons and holes) available to conduct an electric current. The primary goal of creating extrinsic semiconductors is to improve a material’s conductivity and enhance its properties for use in electronic devices and applications.

There are two types of extrinsic semiconductors, N-type and P-type, each with its unique characteristics and applications. To see also : Is the semiconductor cycle spinning?. This distinction is based on the type of charge carriers (electrons or holes) that dominate in the material’s conduction process.

Overview of Extrinsic Semiconductors

An intrinsic semiconductor is a pure material with an equal number of electrons (negative charge carriers) and holes (positive charge carriers). However, its conductivity tends to be low at room temperature, limiting its practical applications in electronics. By introducing impurities, also known as dopants, into the intrinsic semiconductor material, its conductivity can be significantly increased. This process is called doping, and the resulting material is an extrinsic semiconductor.

The impurities introduced into the material have different numbers of valence electrons than the intrinsic material itself. Some impurities create an excess of free electrons, while others create an excess of holes. To see also : ESA releases two reports – Semiconductor Manufacturing Supply Chain & India Semiconductor Market Report. Depending on the type of impurity used and the resulting dominant charge carrier, extrinsic semiconductors can be classified into two types: N-type and P-type.

N-Type Extrinsic Semiconductors

N-type extrinsic semiconductors are created by adding a dopant with more valence electrons than the atoms in the base intrinsic semiconductor material. This may interest you : A 50-year-old mountain giant with no cyber experience is an unlikely candidate in India’s race for semi-independence. Common examples of N-type dopants include elements from group V of the periodic table, such as phosphorus, arsenic, or antimony.

When these dopants are added to a semiconductor material like silicon, which has four valence electrons, the impurity atoms provide an additional electron that becomes a charge carrier. This extra electron is free to move within the material, significantly increasing its electrical conductivity. Due to the prevalence of free electrons as the primary charge carriers, N-type semiconductors are referred to as “negative”-type materials.

Some common applications of N-type semiconductors include transistor components in electronic circuits, the formation of diodes for rectification, and as layers in solar cells to form a junction with P-type semiconductors.

P-Type Extrinsic Semiconductors

P-type extrinsic semiconductors are created by adding a dopant with fewer valence electrons than the atoms in the base intrinsic semiconductor material. Common examples of P-type dopants include elements from the group III of the periodic table, such as boron, aluminum, or gallium.

When these dopants are added to a semiconductor material like silicon, they create a “hole” in the regular arrangement of valence electrons. This hole acts as a positive charge carrier, as it can readily accept electrons from neighboring atoms. As a result, this hole can move freely within the material, similarly to the electrons in N-type semiconductors, and substantially increases the material’s electrical conductivity. Due to the prevalence of holes as the primary charge carriers, P-type semiconductors are referred to as “positive”-type materials.

P-type semiconductors find applications in creating transistors, diodes, and junctions with N-type semiconductors in solar cells, LEDs, and many other electronic devices.

In summary, extrinsic semiconductors are doped materials created to enhance the electrical conductivity of intrinsic semiconductors. By adding impurities, these materials may be categorized into two types, N-type and P-type, depending on the dominant charge carrier. Both N-type and P-type semiconductors are widely utilized in various electronic devices and applications, from transistors to solar panels.

Extrinsic Semiconductor Doping Process

Semiconductor doping is the process of intentionally introducing impurities into a pure semiconductor material to increase its electrical conductivity. The introduction of these impurities can significantly alter the physical and electrical properties of the host semiconductor, allowing it to function better in various electronic devices. This article will cover the materials and techniques involved in the extrinsic semiconductor doping process, as well as methods for determining doping levels.

Doping Materials

When doping a semiconductor, impurities of a specific type can be added to create either n-type or p-type semiconductor materials. N-type semiconductors are produced by introducing donor impurities that have more valence electrons than the host material, while p-type semiconductors are formed by adding acceptor impurities with fewer valence electrons. These impurities can considerably alter the electrical behavior of the semiconductor since they introduce either an excess or a deficit of charge carriers.

Donor Impurities

Donor impurities are typically group V elements in the periodic table, such as phosphorus, arsenic, or antimony. These elements have five valence electrons, which is one more than the four valence electrons in typical semiconductors like silicon or germanium. When donor atoms are integrated into the semiconductor lattice, the extra valence electron becomes weakly bound to the donor atom and can be easily excited into the conduction band, thereby generating an n-type semiconductor with a greater number of free electrons.

Acceptor Impurities

Acceptor impurities are generally group III elements, like boron, aluminum, or gallium. They possess only three valence electrons, which is one less than what’s needed for complete bonding in a silicon or germanium lattice. When these atoms occupy lattice sites, they create “holes” – empty spaces that can accept valence electrons from neighboring atoms. This results in a p-type semiconductor with an increased number of free holes that can accept conduction electrons and thus contribute to electrical conductivity.

Doping Techniques

The extrinsic semiconductor doping process can be accomplished via various techniques, including diffusion doping and ion implantation. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of doping technique depends on the required doping level, material properties, and device dimensions.

Diffusion Doping

Diffusion doping is a relatively straightforward technique that involves heating a semiconductor wafer in the presence of the desired dopant material. The dopant atoms diffuse into the surface of the wafer, thereby altering its electrical properties. This process is usually carried out at high temperatures (800 to 1200°C) in a controlled environment, such as a furnace or a diffusion oven.

While the diffusion process is relatively simple and inexpensive, it can be challenging to control the doping concentration and distribution in the semiconductor material. Additionally, the high temperatures required can introduce defects into the lattice structure, potentially impairing device performance.

Ion Implantation

Ion implantation involves accelerating dopant ions through an electric field and then directing them precisely onto the surface of the wafer. The energetic ions penetrate the semiconductor material, resulting in accurate doping concentration and distribution. Unlike diffusion doping, ion implantation allows for greater control over the doping profile and enables doping in specific regions without masking or damaging other parts of the device.

The major drawback of ion implantation is that it is more expensive and complex than diffusion doping. Furthermore, the energetic ions might cause defects in the lattice structure, requiring additional annealing steps to repair the damage.

Determining Doping Levels

After doping a semiconductor material, it is necessary to characterize the doping levels to ensure the desired electrical properties have been achieved. Various techniques can be used to assess the concentration and distribution of dopants in a semiconductor material, including:

  • Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS): This method involves the sputtering of the material’s surface with an ion beam, followed by mass spectrometry to analyze the ejected ions. SIMS provides precise information on the dopant concentration and distribution.
  • Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP): A technique that measures the resistivity of a semiconductor as a function of depth. It provides information on the dopant concentration and spatial distribution.
  • Hall Effect Measurements: These measurements determine carrier concentration and mobility, which can be used to infer doping levels indirectly.

The choice of characterization technique depends on the material properties, doping levels, and device geometry. In some cases, a combination of methods may be employed to ensure the most accurate and complete characterization of the doped material.

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Energy Bands in Extrinsic Semiconductors

Energy Band Structure

In semiconductors, electrons inhabit distinct energy levels that are organized into energy bands. These energy bands are essential in determining the electrical properties of semiconductors, including how they conduct electricity and how they respond to varying external conditions. There are three primary energy bands in extrinsic semiconductors: the conduction band, the valence band, and the Fermi energy level.

Conduction Band

The conduction band corresponds to the energy levels of free electrons in a semiconductor, which are responsible for conducting electric current. Electrons in the conduction band possess sufficient energy to move freely throughout the semiconductor and participate in electrical conduction. The bottom of the conduction band represents the lowest energy level at which an electron can exist and still be considered a free electron.

Valence Band

Below the conduction band lies the valence band, which consists of the energy levels of bound electrons. Electrons in the valence band are not free to move and cannot participate in electrical conduction. These electrons are bound to specific atoms within the semiconductor lattice, forming covalent bonds. The top of the valence band represents the highest energy level at which an electron can still be considered bound to an atom.

Fermi Energy Level

The Fermi energy level (or Fermi level) is an abstract concept that serves as a reference point when analyzing semiconductor properties. It represents the energy level at which there is a 50% probability that an electron will occupy a given energy state. In an intrinsic semiconductor (a semiconductor without any impurities added), the Fermi level lies exactly halfway between the conduction and valence bands. In extrinsic semiconductors, which are doped with impurities to increase their electrical conductivity, the Fermi level shifts either closer to the conduction band (for n-type semiconductors) or closer to the valence band (for p-type semiconductors).

Band Gap and Carrier Concentration

The bandgap is the energy difference between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band. It plays a crucial role in determining the electrical and optical properties of a semiconductor material. In extrinsic semiconductors, the bandgap and the carrier concentration are influenced by temperature and doping.

Effect of Temperature on Band Gap

As temperature increases, the bandgap of a semiconductor generally decreases due to the increasing vibrations of the lattice atoms, which result in a temporary distortion of the crystal lattice. This distortion allows electrons to more easily transition from the valence band to the conduction band, resulting in an increase in carrier concentration. Conversely, as the temperature decreases, the bandgap increases and the carrier concentration decreases.

Effect of Doping on Band Gap

Doping is the process of adding impurity atoms to a semiconductor to modify its electrical properties. N-type doping introduces donor impurities, which provide extra electrons to the semiconductor, populating the conduction band and shifting the Fermi level closer to the conduction band. P-type doping introduces acceptor impurities, which create electron vacancy sites (holes) in the valence band and shift the Fermi level closer to the valence band.

Doping can also affect the effective bandgap of a semiconductor. When the doping concentration increases, the effective bandgap decreases due to the increased interaction between the donor or acceptor impurities and the conduction or valence bands, respectively. This interaction narrows the gap between the bands and facilitates electron transitions, increasing the carrier concentration and therefore the overall conductivity of the material.

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Carrier Transport Processes and Mechanisms

Carrier transport processes and mechanisms are essential aspects of semiconductor device operation. They determine the behavior of charge carriers (electrons and holes) inside a semiconductor material and play a key role in defining the overall performance of electronic devices. In this article, we will discuss the most critical carrier transport mechanisms, such as drift and diffusion, generation and recombination, Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) process, Auger recombination process, and Fragmentary (Franz-Keldysh) recombination process.

Drift and Diffusion

In a semiconductor material, the movement of charge carriers can be compelled by two fundamental mechanisms: drift and diffusion. Drift is the motion of carriers in response to an externally applied electric field. In this case, the carriers acquire a velocity that is directly proportional to the applied electric field, following Ohm’s law. The drift velocity is determined by the carrier mobility, which is a measure of how easily a carrier can move in the material.

Diffusion, on the other hand, is the motion of carriers due to their inherent thermal energy. In a region with a higher carrier concentration, carriers will naturally disperse to regions with a lower concentration, following the concentration gradient. This process follows Fick’s law, which states that the diffusion current density is proportional to the gradient of the carrier concentration. Diffusion plays a vital role in semiconductor devices operating under low electric fields and is crucial in the formation of junctions.

Generation and Recombination

Generation and recombination processes are essential in maintaining the equilibrium of carriers in semiconductor materials. Generation refers to the creation of electron-hole pairs due to the excitation of electrons from the valence band to the conduction band. This can happen either thermally, through the absorption of a photon, or by collision with other charge carriers (impact ionization).

Recombination is the inverse process, in which an electron in the conduction band loses energy and combines with a hole in the valence band. This process can release energy in different forms, such as thermal vibrations (phonons) or photons (radiative recombination). To maintain equilibrium in a semiconductor, the rate of generation must balance the rate of recombination.

Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) Process

The Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) process, also known as trap-assisted recombination, is a non-radiative recombination mechanism that involves energy levels within the forbidden gap. In this process, an electron in the conduction band transfers its energy to a recombination center (or trap level) before recombining with a hole in the valence band. Similarly, holes can also transfer to the trap level before recombining with an electron.

These trap levels can be either donor or acceptor levels, being introduced by defects, impurities, or structural imperfections in the semiconductor material. The presence of such centers has major consequences on the device performance and is considered undesirable in most cases. However, the SRH process can also be useful in some applications, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), by controlling the emission wavelength.

Auger Recombination Process

The Auger recombination process is a non-radiative carrier recombination process that involves the participation of three charge carriers. In this mechanism, an electron and a hole recombine, transferring the energy released to a third carrier, which can be either an electron or hole. This spare carrier gains enough energy to move into a higher-energy state, eventually releasing it as a phonon (lattice vibrations).

This process becomes more dominant at higher carrier concentrations and significantly contributes to the efficiency loss in high-intensity electronic devices, such as lasers and solar cells.

Fragmentary (Franz-Keldysh) Recombination Process

The Fragmentary (Franz-Keldysh) recombination process, also known as field-assisted or tunneling recombination, is a mechanism that involves the presence of high electric fields. In this process, carriers overcome the energy barrier due to the presence of a strong electric field which, in turn, lowers the energy difference between the conduction and valence bands.

As a result, electrons are able to tunnel into holes within the valence band, forming electron-hole pairs that subsequently recombine. This recombination process is significant in devices operating under high electric fields, such as avalanche photodiodes and high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs).

Electronic Properties of Extrinsic Semiconductors

Extrinsic semiconductors are materials in which the semiconductor properties arise from the presence of impurities, either intentionally or accidentally, within the semiconductor. These impurities introduce additional energy levels, allowing electrons to move more easily and increasing the overall electrical conductivity. In this article, we will discuss the electronic properties of extrinsic semiconductors, focusing on electrical conductivity, carrier mobility, Seebeck effect, and Hall effect.

Electrical Conductivity

Electrical conductivity is one of the most critical properties of extrinsic semiconductors. It defines how well a material can conduct electric current. The intrinsic semiconductors have weak electrical conductivity due to the limited number of carriers available for conduction. In contrast, the electrical conductivity of extrinsic semiconductors is significantly higher due to the additional energy states introduced by the impurities.

There are two types of extrinsic semiconductors: n-type and p-type. In an n-type semiconductor, which is formed by doping the semiconductor material with donor impurities, the majority charge carriers are electrons, leading to an increase in electrical conductivity when an electric field is applied. Similarly, p-type semiconductors are formed by doping the material with acceptor impurities, leading to majority charge carriers being holes (absence of electrons). The overall electrical conductivity of an extrinsic semiconductor is therefore determined by the concentration of these impurities and the mobility of the charge carriers.

Carrier Mobility

Carrier mobility is another essential electronic property of extrinsic semiconductors, as it directly influences the electrical conductivity. In general, carrier mobility is a measure of how quickly a charge carrier (electron or hole) can move through the semiconductor material under an electric field. The higher the carrier mobility, the higher the electrical conductivity.

Carrier mobility is significantly influenced by the scattering mechanisms within the semiconductor. Scattering refers to the process in which charge carriers collide with impurities, lattice vibrations (phonons), or other charge carriers, reducing their overall mobility. In extrinsic semiconductors, the doping process introduces additional scattering mechanisms due to the presence of impurities. Therefore, doping can lead to both increasing and decreasing carrier mobility, depending on the doping concentration and the type of impurities used.

Seebeck Effect

The Seebeck effect is a phenomenon in which a difference in temperature between two points in a material leads to a voltage generation. The Seebeck coefficient is the measure of the strength of this effect and depends on the electronic properties of the material, including the carrier concentration and mobility.

In extrinsic semiconductors, the Seebeck coefficient depends mainly on the type of semiconductor (n-type or p-type) and the doping concentration. Generally, materials with a high carrier concentration will exhibit a lower Seebeck coefficient. This is because, in highly doped semiconductors, there is a higher probability for the charge carriers to undergo scattering events, leading to a reduction in the average energy difference between the hot and cold regions of the material. As a result, the voltage generated due to the Seebeck effect will be lower in highly doped extrinsic semiconductors.

Hall Effect

The Hall effect is a well-known phenomenon in which a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of current in a material leads to the development of a voltage across the sample, orthogonal to both the current and the magnetic field. The Hall coefficient is a measure of the material’s response to the applied magnetic field and can be used to determine the nature of the charge carriers (electrons or holes) and their concentration.

In extrinsic semiconductors, the Hall coefficient is significantly influenced by the doping concentration and the type of impurity used. In general, n-type semiconductors exhibit a negative Hall coefficient, indicating that the majority carriers are electrons, while p-type semiconductors exhibit a positive Hall coefficient, indicating hole conduction. By measuring the Hall coefficient and the electrical conductivity, it is possible to determine the carrier concentration and mobility in extrinsic semiconductors, allowing for a better understanding of the material’s electronic properties and its suitability for various technological applications.

Extrinsic Semiconductor Applications

Semiconductors are the backbone of modern electronics and hold a crucial role in the development of advanced technology. Extrinsic semiconductors are made by adding impurities (doping) to a pure (intrinsic) semiconductor material, such as silicon or germanium. Doping transforms the semiconductor’s electrical properties, making it more conductive and adaptable for different applications. Extrinsic semiconductors offer a wide range of possibilities in the electronic device industry. In this article, we will discuss some of the most common applications of extrinsic semiconductors.

Diodes

Diodes are electron devices that allow current to flow in one direction while blocking current in the other, giving them a crucial role in many electronic applications. They are commonly used for rectification, voltage stabilization, signal modulation or demodulation, and protection against excessive voltage. In extrinsic semiconductors, p-n junction diodes are formed by combining a p-type and an n-type semiconductor material.

P-type material has an excess of holes (positive charge carriers), while n-type material comprises additional electrons (negative charge carriers). When a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor come into contact, they form a p-n junction with a potential barrier between them. The diode conducts when a forward bias is applied, and blocks the current when reverse biased, making it an essential component in various electronic circuits.

Transistors

Transistors are key components in electronic devices due to their versatility in performing different tasks such as amplification, switching, and signal processing. Extrinsic semiconductors’ properties play a vital role in developing bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and field-effect transistors (FETs).

BJTs consist of two p-n junctions and can be either an npn or pnp transistor. The transistor’s operation relies on the interaction between the p-type and n-type extrinsic semiconductors. Meanwhile, FETs exploit the electric field effect by controlling the conductivity between two terminals (source and drain) with a third terminal (gate).

Transistors have widespread usage in an array of applications, such as communication systems, television sets, computers, and control systems, to name a few.

Integrated Circuits (ICs) and Microelectronics

Integrated Circuits (ICs) are assemblies of miniaturized electronic components built on a thin substrate. Extrinsic semiconductors make them small, cheap, and reliable. Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology, which inextricably links p-type and n-type transistors, is widely employed in the fabrication of digital logic circuits, microprocessors, and memory.

ICs have revolutionized the electronics industry by minimizing the size and cost of electronic systems. They are used across a plethora of applications, including automotive, consumer electronics, medical devices, and computer systems.

Photodetectors and Solar Cells

Extrinsic semiconductors are employed in photodetection and solar cell systems. Photodetectors are devices that convert light energy into electrical signals. They are widely used in communication systems, imaging devices, and sensing applications. Solar cells, on the other hand, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Extrinsic semiconductor-based devices such as photodiodes, avalanche photodiodes, and PIN diodes are designed to improve the efficiency and sensitivity of light detection and solar energy harvesting.

Optoelectronic Devices

Optoelectronics is a field that combines electronics with photonics (the study and use of light). Extrinsic semiconductors play an important role in optoelectronics by enabling the development of devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and semiconductor lasers. LEDs are widely used in various applications, including display panels, solid-state lighting, and indicator lights. Semiconductor lasers are the foundation of fiber optic communication systems, optical storage devices, and medical instrumentation.

Power Electronics Devices

Power electronics devices are responsible for controlling and converting electrical power. Extrinsic semiconductors are used in power devices like thyristors, power diodes, and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). These devices are employed in motor control systems, power supplies, power transmission, and renewable energy systems to regulate voltage and current, improving energy efficiency and reducing energy loss.

The Significance of a Comprehensive Approach

In order to solve complex problems and make informed decisions, it is vital for individuals and organizations to embrace a comprehensive approach. By considering multiple perspectives, gathering diverse data, and thoroughly analyzing the situation, individuals and organizations can improve their understanding of the problem, possible solutions, and potential consequences. A comprehensive approach results in more effective decision-making and problem-solving, which ultimately leads to better outcomes.

The Benefits of a Comprehensive Approach

A comprehensive approach offers several benefits, which include the following:

  1. Enhanced understanding: Taking the time to gather multiple perspectives and explore different aspects of a problem leads to a deeper understanding of the issue at hand. This understanding strengthens the ability to make informed decisions, leading to better outcomes.

  2. Holistic solutions: By considering all aspects of a problem, comprehensive solutions are more likely to address the root causes and provide lasting, meaningful improvements. This helps to avoid short-term fixes that fail to address underlying issues and merely serve as temporary solutions.

  3. Increased confidence: A well-researched and thought-out comprehensive approach can inspire confidence in decision-making. The extensive analysis that goes into making decisions based on a comprehensive approach bolsters the conviction and certainty that the decision taken is the best possible one.

  4. Improved adaptability: A comprehensive approach enables more effective responses to new challenges and changing circumstances. The ability to critically analyze and adapt plans to ever-evolving situations leads to improved resilience and overall success.

  5. Effective collaboration: A comprehensive approach promotes collaboration as it necessitates the involvement and input of various stakeholders. By pooling the expertise and knowledge of numerous individuals or departments, superior resolutions are achieved.

Challenges of Implementing a Comprehensive Approach

Although the benefits of employing a comprehensive approach are clear, there can be challenges to overcome. Some of these challenges include:

Time and Resource Constraints

A comprehensive approach often requires a significant investment of time and resources. Gathering data, consulting stakeholders, and analyzing the different aspects of a problem can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. However, it is important to weigh the advantages of a comprehensive approach against the potential costs of making ill-informed decisions.

Analysis Paralysis

Sometimes, a comprehensive approach can result in analysis paralysis, where individuals or organizations become overwhelmed by the sheer volume of information and perspectives to be considered. It is essential to strike a balance between thorough research and decisive action. A structured decision-making process can help to provide focus and manage complexity.

Resistance to Change

A comprehensive approach may call for new systems or approaches, which can be met with resistance from those who have grown accustomed to existing ways of doing things. Effective change management is crucial in overcoming resistance and enabling the successful implementation of a comprehensive approach.

Strategies for Successful Implementation of a Comprehensive Approach

To successfully implement a comprehensive approach, consider the following strategies:

  1. Prioritize problems: Identify and prioritize the most significant problems facing an organization. Focus resources and research efforts accordingly.

  2. Develop a clear decision-making framework: Establish a structured, transparent decision-making process that fosters collaboration and efficiently moves from problem identification to action.

  3. Utilize expertise: Engage with diverse stakeholders and experts, and actively incorporate their insights and perspectives into decision-making processes.

  4. Embrace adaptability: Regularly revisit analysis and decision-making processes to ensure relevance and adaptability in the face of changing circumstances.

  5. Communicate results: Share the results of comprehensive approaches and how they contribute to improved decision-making, fostering a culture of transparency and learning.

Overall, a comprehensive approach is crucial for achieving optimal outcomes in both individual and organizational decision-making processes. By understanding the benefits, overcoming challenges, and employing strategies for successful implementation, a comprehensive approach can lead to informed decisions and effective problem-solving.

1. What is the definition of an extrinsic semiconductor?

An extrinsic semiconductor refers to semiconductor material that has been intentionally doped with impurities to alter its electrical properties, specifically to control the number of free charge carriers (electrons or holes) and their mobility (Cooke, 2019).

2. How is an extrinsic semiconductor different from an intrinsic semiconductor?

Intrinsically, semiconductors are insulators with equally small numbers of mobile electrons and holes. However, extrinsic semiconductors have additional electrons or holes resulting from impurity doping, which allows them to better conduct electrical charge (Cambridge University, 2019).

3. What is the purpose of doping extrinsic semiconductors?

Doping extrinsic semiconductors is essential to increase conductivity and functionality of semiconductor devices. Intentionally adding impurities results in effective control of charge carriers and their properties, which enables optimization and customization of the device performance (Cambridge University, 2019).

4. What are the two types of extrinsic semiconductors, and how do they differ?

The two extrinsic semiconductor types are n-type (electron-rich) and p-type (hole-rich). N-type has excess free electrons due to donor impurity atoms, whereas p-type has a deficiency of free electrons (excess holes) caused by acceptor impurity atoms (Cooke, 2019).

5. In what types of electronic devices can extrinsic semiconductors be found?

Extrinsic semiconductors are integral components of various electronic devices, such as diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits. They are critical in the operation of smartphones, computers, and photovoltaic solar panels, as well as energy-efficient LED lighting (Wikipedia, 2021).

6. How are extrinsic semiconductors involved in the formation of pn-junctions?

Pn-junctions are formed when p-type and n-type extrinsic semiconductors join together to create a diffusion junction. At the boundary, free electrons from the n-type material unite with holes from the p-type material, establishing a depletion zone with neutral charge (Cambridge University, 2019).

References:

Cambridge University. (2019). Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor. Retrieved from https://www-g.eng.cam.ac.uk/mmg/teaching/theses/topics/intrinsic_extrinsic_semiconductor_topic.pdf

Cooke, D. (2019). Extrinsic semiconductor. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/technology/extrinsic-semiconductor

Wikipedia. (2021). Semiconductor. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiconductor

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